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Legal constraint business activities, the uncertainty of social status in the Imperial Estates society, threatening shouts authorities regarding any manifestation of initiative - all this contributed to the political development of the Russian bourgeoisie and was expressed in its social inertia. The workers who made up 23.5% of Russia's population, for the most part came from the peasantry, which was confirmed by the 1897 census data, the census and the city in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Odessa, Baku, and so on. D.Chislennost proletariat at the end of the XIX century. It has been quite significant, given the limitations of the chronological time of its formation. In addition to factory workers, has steadily increased the mass of the population employed hired labor, which include unskilled workers, day laborers, staff in institutions, industrial and domestic enterprises, domestic servants. These processes become even more dynamic in the early XX century. During the period 1900-1913 gg. the number of workers increased by half, ie. e. the increase of this social group outpaced the overall growth of the population. According to research estimates, the number of hired workers is determined on 1913 18 19 million people, of which in manufacturing industry, mining and transport sectors employed about 4 million people, in small industry - 3 million, in construction - . 1.5 million The number of hired workers in agriculture reached 6.5 million, and employed in forestry, laborers in construction, transport and trade -. more than 3 million in the environment of the factory and railway workers on the turn of the century grows up 40% of the layer of hereditary proletarians, reduced their relationship to land. One manifestation of this trend was the lengthening of the working year, especially at the beginning of XX century., And an increase in workers' seniority. In manufacturing, the proportion of women has risen from 26% to 31% in 1900. In 1913,

Tratat de Igiena Mintala by Constantin Enachescu

Page Updated: Feb 21, 2017
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Constantin Enachescu
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Tratat de Igiena Mintala

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