The modern physiology of vision has saved up many facts which contradict the accepted approach to mechanisms of primary visual perception. It had always been considered that an image of some object primarily constructed by the eye cornea and lens first unequivocally is projected to the matrix of photoreceptors (rod and cone cells), and then is exposed to processing in several layers of the nervous cells arranged behind them. However, the optical image is actually projected to photoreceptors through the layers of nervous cells, i.e. our retina is inverted. This new book offers a new model of primary visual perception which is well coordinated with morphological and experimental data and eliminates the arisen contradictions.